Lozan: The Treaty that Shaped Modern Turkey
Lozan: The Treaty that Shaped Modern Turkey
Lozan, also known as the Treaty of Lausanne, was a peace treaty signed in 1923 between the Ottoman Empire and its allies, and the victorious powers of World War I. It marked the end of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey as a sovereign state. Lozan is considered one of the most important events in Turkish history, as it defined the borders, rights and obligations of the new Turkish state.
One of the most comprehensive and authoritative sources on Lozan is the two-volume book by Cemil Bilsel, a Turkish diplomat and historian who participated in the negotiations as an assistant to Ismet Inonu, the chief Turkish delegate. Bilsel's book, titled simply Lozan, is based on his personal observations, documents and correspondence. It provides a detailed account of the political, diplomatic and legal aspects of the treaty, as well as its historical and cultural context.
Cemil Bilsel Lozan Pdf Download
If you are interested in learning more about Lozan and its significance for Turkey and the world, you can download Bilsel's book in PDF format from various online sources. However, be aware that some of these sources may not be reliable or secure, and may contain viruses or malware. Therefore, it is advisable to use a trusted and reputable website that offers legal and safe downloads of books.The treaty was the result of a long and complex negotiation process that involved various parties with different interests and agendas. The main issues that were discussed and resolved during the conference were:
The recognition of Turkey's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and the renunciation of any claims by the Allies or their former allies on Turkish lands.
The settlement of the status of the Turkish Straits, which were declared open to all commercial and military vessels under an international commission.
The exchange of populations between Turkey and Greece, which involved the compulsory transfer of about 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and about 500,000 Muslims from Greece.
The protection of the rights and interests of the religious and ethnic minorities in Turkey, such as the Kurds, Armenians, Jews, and Greeks.
The abolition of the capitulations and extraterritorial privileges that had been granted to foreign nationals by the Ottoman Empire.
The regulation of Turkey's financial obligations and reparations to the Allies, as well as the disposal of the former Ottoman assets and debts.
The Treaty of Lausanne was a landmark achievement for Turkey, as it secured its independence and national unity after a long struggle against foreign domination. It also marked a new era in international relations, as it replaced the old imperialist system with a new order based on national self-determination and cooperation.The Treaty of Lausanne had a profound impact on the political, social and economic development of Turkey and the region. Some of the main effects of the treaty were:
The emergence of Turkey as a modern, secular and nationalist state, with a strong sense of identity and pride. The treaty also paved the way for the reforms initiated by AtatÃrk, such as the abolition of the caliphate, the adoption of the Latin alphabet, the promotion of women's rights and education, and the secularization of the legal system.
The end of the Ottoman Empire and its influence in the Middle East and North Africa. The treaty also marked the beginning of a new era of nationalism and conflict in the region, as the former Ottoman provinces became subject to British and French mandates or independent states with disputed borders and ethnic tensions.
The displacement and suffering of millions of people due to the population exchange between Turkey and Greece. The treaty forced about 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and about 500,000 Muslims from Greece to leave their ancestral homes and relocate to unfamiliar lands. The exchange was based on religious affiliation rather than ethnicity or language, and resulted in cultural loss, economic hardship and human rights violations.
The establishment of a new international order based on national self-determination and cooperation. The treaty was one of the first examples of a peace settlement that respected the principle of national sovereignty and rejected the old system of imperialism and spheres of influence. The treaty also created a new framework for managing the Turkish Straits, which became an important waterway for international trade and security.