Oxford Chemistry Primers: Magnetochemistry for Students and Professionals
Magnetochemistry Oxford Chemistry Primers: A Review
Magnetochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the magnetic properties of chemical compounds and their relation to their electronic structures. It is a fascinating and interdisciplinary field that has applications in various areas of science and technology, such as magnetics, bioinorganic chemistry, molecular materials and nanoscience. In this article, we will review a book that provides an introductory survey of magnetochemistry with a particular focus on paramagnetic compounds. The book is Magnetochemistry by A. F. Orchard, which is part of the Oxford Chemistry Primers series.
Magnetochemistry Oxford Chemistry Primers
Oxford Chemistry Primers are a series of books that provide accessible accounts of a range of essential topics in chemistry and chemical engineering. Written with students in mind, these books offer just the right level of detail for undergraduate study, and are invaluable as a source of material commonly presented in lectures. Cutting-edge examples and applications throughout the texts show the relevance of the chemistry being described to current research and industry.
Magnetochemistry by A. F. Orchard is one of the latest titles in the Oxford Chemistry Primers series. It was published in 2003 and has 176 pages with 140 line illustrations. The main goal of the book is to provide an elementary introduction to the field of magnetochemistry for students who have a minimal amount of background knowledge of the physical concepts underlying the subject. The book also highlights the practical applications of the theory in magnetics technology.
The book is divided into two main parts: Magnetic Properties of Chemical Compounds (Chapters 1-4) and Paramagnetic Compounds (Chapters 5-8). In each chapter, the author introduces the relevant concepts and terminology, explains the theoretical models and calculations, presents the experimental techniques and applications, and provides examples and exercises to test the understanding of the reader. The book also includes a glossary of terms, a list of symbols, a bibliography and an index.
Magnetic Properties of Chemical Compounds
Basic Concepts and Terminology
The first chapter of the book introduces the basic concepts and terminology of magnetochemistry, such as magnetic moments, magnetic fields, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization. Magnetic moments are measures of the strength and direction of the magnetic sources, such as electrons, nuclei and atoms. Magnetic fields are regions of space where magnetic forces act on magnetic moments. Magnetic susceptibility is a property that describes how easily a material can be magnetized by an external magnetic field. Magnetization is the net magnetic moment per unit volume of a material.
The second chapter of the book explains the different types of magnetism that can be observed in chemical compounds, such as diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Diamagnetism is a weak and negative form of magnetism that arises from the orbital motion of electrons in atoms. Paramagnetism is a stronger and positive form of magnetism that arises from the unpaired spins of electrons in atoms or molecules. Ferromagnetism is a very strong and positive form of magnetism that arises from the alignment of parallel spins in domains within a material. Antiferromagnetism is a form of magnetism that arises from the alignment of antiparallel spins in domains within a material. Ferrimagnetism is a form of magnetism that arises from the alignment of antiparallel spins in domains within a material, but with unequal magnitudes.
The third chapter of the book discusses some important phenomena related to the magnetic properties of chemical compounds, such as magnetic anisotropy, magnetic hysteresis and magnetic domains. Magnetic anisotropy is the dependence of the magnetic properties on the direction of the applied magnetic field or the orientation of the material. Magnetic hysteresis is the lagging of the magnetization behind the applied magnetic field when it is varied cyclically. Magnetic domains are regions within a material where the spins are aligned in a uniform direction.
Experimental Techniques and Applications
The fourth chapter of the book describes some experimental techniques and applications for measuring and using the magnetic properties of chemical compounds, such as susceptibility measurements and EPR spectra. Susceptibility measurements are methods for determining the magnetic susceptibility of a material by measuring its response to an applied magnetic field. EPR spectra are methods for determining the electronic structure and spin state of paramagnetic compounds by measuring their absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a magnetic field.
The chapter also illustrates how the magnetic properties can be used to characterize the electronic structures of chemical compounds, such as free ions, free radicals, transition metal complexes and lanthanide complexes. The chapter shows how to use simple models and calculations to estimate the magnetic moments and susceptibility values for these compounds, and how to compare them with experimental data. The chapter also shows how to interpret EPR spectra by using parameters such as g-factors, hyperfine splittings and line shapes.
The chapter also highlights some applications of magnetochemistry in magnetics technology, such as permanent magnets, electromagnets, magnetic storage devices and magnetic resonance imaging. The chapter explains how different types of magnetism can be exploited to create devices that generate or use magnetic fields for various purposes. The chapter also gives some examples of materials that have desirable magnetic properties for these applications, such as rare earth metals, ferrites and alloys.
Theoretical Models and Calculations
The fifth chapter of the book introduces some theoretical models and calculations for paramagnetic compounds, such as the Curie law, the Van Vleck equation and the spin Hamiltonian. The Curie law is a simple equation that relates the susceptibility of a paramagnetic compound to its temperature and its effective magnetic moment. The Van Vleck equation is a more general equation that takes into account the orbital contribution to the paramagnetism and the effect of thermal population on different energy levels. The spin Hamiltonian is a mathematical expression that describes the energy levels and transitions of a paramagnetic compound in terms of its spin operators and parameters.
The sixth chapter of the book shows how to calculate the magnetic moments for different types of paramagnetic compounds, such as free ions, free radicals and transition metal complexes. The chapter explains how to use Hund's rules, crystal field theory, ligand field theory and molecular orbital theory to determine the spin state, orbital state and total state of these compounds. The chapter also shows how to use spectroscopic data, such as absorption spectra and EPR spectra, to verify or refine these calculations.
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